Social media

Social Media

It’s not neutral: social media companies are trying hard to get your attention.
(690 words)
IELTS Reading Questions:
Yes / No / Not Given & List Selection

Although social media has a lot of benefits, it has also captured people’s attention in a way that doesn’t seem entirely healthy. Whether it’s young couples in restaurants staring at their screens or kids trying to get attention from a mum who’s not looking up, there’s something sad about the amount of distraction that’s happening. And it’s not clear whether most people realise that they’re being manipulated by very clever algorithms.

Much of this technology is not neutral: most social media apps and websites are competing for your attention, and for many of the big companies this is driven by the advertising model. This means that the more time you spend on site, the more revenue the company gets from advertisers, so a goal for these companies is to get you to spend more time on their app or website. As Tristan Harris explains, engineers at these tech companies are looking into how your psychology works to figure out the best ways to get your attention. Harris had previously worked at Google, where he studied how to manipulate people’s thoughts, and, in his 2017 TED Talk, he claimed that these companies steer one billion thoughts, as any notification on your screen leads you to have thoughts that you didn’t intend to have.

Another problem with this competition for your attention is the types of thoughts it might lead you to have. News sources have known for a long time that stories that shock or make people angry or scared get more viewers or readers, so they have tended to show these stories more. And Harris says that in the online world, stories that create outrage are very good at getting people’s attention. What’s more, if you do engage with these types of stories, the clever algorithms will show you similar stories to increase your time on site. All of this is likely to have an effect on your view of the world and the things that you spend your time thinking about and talking about. As Harris puts it, it’s ‘changing our ability to have the conversations and relationships that we want with each other.’

Although social media is good for keeping in touch and seeing what people are doing, I don’t often post anything there. One of the reasons for that is that I once noticed how my thinking and behaviour changed when I posted a photo on Facebook. It was a good photo, and likes started popping up, and it felt good. Then I found myself compulsively checking to see if there were more likes, and more comments, and the good feeling changed to one of wanting more: ’twenty likes; I hope it gets to thirty’, my thinking went, as if I would feel okay then. I noticed what was happening to my thinking, but I still continued checking who had liked it, or even loved the picture, and who hadn’t.

That compulsive checking and wanting more is a common experience, and again, it’s because the technology involved is not neutral: Facebook have designed their likes system to make you want to keep checking. In an article in The Guardian, Sean Parker, founding president of Facebook, explains that their engineers designed this system to give you a little hit of dopamine when somebody comments on or likes your picture or post. Dopamine is a feel-good neurotransmitter connected to happiness and motivation but also to addiction. Each time you get a like, dopamine gives you a little bit of pleasure, but it doesn’t last, and it often creates a feeling of wanting more.

Social media has brought a lot of benefits, but the amount of distraction and the effect on the way we connect is worrying. This, along with the way that we are targeted with news stories, and even lies, leads Harris to say that he doesn’t know of a more urgent problem right now. Perhaps there will be some changes – tech companies designing more ethical systems, for example. Or maybe more people will become aware of how they’re being manipulated and realise they have more of a choice about what they pay attention to.

IELTS Reading Questions for Social Media:
Yes / No / Not Given & List Selection.

Sources and links from Social Media

TED talk by Tristan Harris about what tech companies are doing to get your attention.
Guardian article about social media and dopamine.
– Image by Анастасия Гепп from Pixabay 

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This Post Has 17 Comments

  1. Rawia

    Thanks Nick, question number 5 was a bit tricky but it’s really helpful and worth looking.

    1. Nick

      You’re welcome, Rawia.
      Yeah, 5 is tricky – the relevant information is in the final paragraph.

      1. Masroor

        Hi Nick, the final paragraph doesn’t address anything about help. It just mentioned about people waking up. So how have we come to a conclusion that the answer of question 5 is no?

        1. Nick

          Hi Masroor.
          It’s the final part, after ‘waking up’
          – ‘people become more aware of how they’re being manipulated (by tech companies)…’ = more knowledge
          – ‘realise they have more of a choice’ = a good thing for them (helpful)
          together = more knowledge about what tech companies are doing IS helpful for people.

  2. Jim

    Also, why is question number 2 “NG” instead of NO? Thanks

    1. Nick

      Hi Jim.

      The key word is most (look out for words like that in T/F/NG and Y/N/NG questions). Paragraph 3 explains how tech companies get money from the advertising model and the effect that this has; however, it doesn’t say, or even suggest, that they get most of their money from from advertising. It might be true in the real world that these companies do get most of their money from advertising, but the article just doesn’t say that, so NG.

  3. Anes

    It’s kinda weirdly true about myself I used to be more into social networking sites
    But now I have learned to check it
    I also used to get excited when people likes my post specially for when people says something good about my post I used to feel good besides when people does bad comments I used to feel bad
    Now I don’t react that much to that

  4. Jolie

    Hi Nick,

    it’s been a long time! How have you been, Nick?
    Thank you for sharing the concern about social media. It is so true.
    This problem has been talked about again and again, and it is still here.
    I think lots of us understand the different between the life with social media and the life without it, cause we have experienced both of them.
    Just wanna said that I am really appreciate that I can read this article now and here, and I know what this takes.
    I am agree that we should be more conscious and aware when using social media.

    1. Nick

      Hi Jolie.
      Yes. Long time. Thanks for your nice comment.
      I agree that awareness is key. A common topic when I’m teaching is ‘the pros and cons of social media’, and I think there are more pros, as long as you are aware of what is happening – competition for your attention etc.


    Why answer answer 4 is no

    1. Nick

      Hi Jibin.
      You answer ‘no’ if the information in the question contradicts (is the opposite of) the information in the passage.
      Question 4 is: ‘Social Media doesn’t have any upsides.’ Upsides means advantages or benefits (good things).
      The final paragraph of this passage starts with, ‘Social media has brought a lot of benefits …’.
      Question 4 contradicts the information in the passage.
      Hope that helps.

  6. Kanika Mehra

    Hello sir,
    Thanks for this interesting article ,really helpful. I got confused in Qs 5 and 8 .Can you explain why ans to Q 8 is D and not G.

    1. Nick

      Hi Kanika.
      Glad you like the article.

      Let me explain question 8.
      Question 8 = What are tech algorithms doing to people’s thoughts? Answer = D Influencing them
      (You were looking in the right place: both D and G are about the effects of the algorithms and what news sources show us.)

      Tip 1 – look at the keywords in the question and look for these words or synonyms of these keywords in the text.
      In the question, ‘tech algorithms’ and ‘people’s thoughts’ are keywords.
      In paragraph 3 it says: All of this is likely to have an effect on your view of the world and the things that you spend your time thinking about and talking about.
      ‘All of this’ refers back to the tech algorithms (and the news sources).
      ‘have an effect on’ = ‘influence’.
      ‘the things you spend your time thinking about’ = ‘people’s thoughts’.

      Tip 2 – look at the grammar.
      The question is: What are tech algorithms doing to people’s thoughts?
      It’s a present continous question, for which a full answer would be ‘Tech algortithms are + v___ing people’s thoughts’ / ‘They are + v___ing them’. A short answer will be ‘v___ing them’.
      If you notice the grammar in that question, you would know that the answer could only be B or D as they are the only ‘v___ing’ answers.
      Although G is something that is being affected by the algorithms, it’s not about people’s thoughts, and it doesn’t make sense grammatically.

      Hope that helps.

    2. Kanika Mehra

      Thanks for the explanation .was really helpful.

      1. Nick

        You’re welcome.
        Good luck with the studies.

  7. Sahara

    Excuse me, by whom was this article written by?

    1. Nick

      Hi Sahara.
      I wrote it. I write all the articles on the site.

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